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Due to its high cutting accuracy, Ultra-fast precision laser cutting machine have been widely used in the processing of components in industrial fields such as aerospace, medical equipment, and precision instruments. How can high-precision laser cutting be achieved?
Laser is called the brightest light, the most accurate ruler, and the fastest light. Lasers can accumulate a large amount of energy on a small unit area with higher energy, causing substances like metals to quickly melt or evaporate, thus playing a cutting role.
The focal length can generally reach around 0.1 millimeters. It is like a very precise knife, much finer than a broadsword.
At the same time, because of the large processing energy density, the time of acting on the material is very short, which reduces the Heat-affected zone of the workpiece, and the thermal deformation is small. The laser is non mechanical contact processing, which has no mechanical stress on the workpiece, and is suitable for precision processing.
A solid machine tool system is the foundation for ensuring the accuracy of laser cutting. Strict mechanical design, precision welding, stress treatment and other operations ensure the smooth and stable operation of the Precision Laser Cutting Machine, which remains unchanged for a long time.
In addition, achieving precision cutting with laser cutting function also benefits from its high-precision transmission structure, including gears and racks, servo motors, reducers, etc.
Precision Laser Machining Center can achieve high-precision and small tolerance manufacturing, reduce material waste, and process material diversity. Precision laser cutting technology can be widely used in various manufacturing applications and has become a valuable asset in the automotive industry, producing complex and thick parts from various materials, from hydraulic forming 3D shapes to safety airbags. The precision electronics industry is used for precision machining of metal or plastic parts, casings, and circuit boards. From processing workshops, small workshops to large industrial facilities, they provide manufacturers with numerous advantages, which is why precision laser cutting is used.
The precision and edge quality of the materials cut by laser are better than those cut by traditional methods. The laser cutting uses a highly focused beam, which acts as a Heat-affected zone during the cutting process and will not cause large area thermal damage to adjacent surfaces. In addition, the use of high-pressure gas cutting processes, such as CO2 spraying molten materials, removes material slits from narrower workpieces, resulting in cleaner processing and smoother edges for complex shapes and designs. The laser cutting machine has a CNC function, and the laser cutting process can be automatically controlled by a pre designed machine program. The CNC controlled laser cutting machine reduces the risk of operator error and produces more precise, accurate, and strictly tolerance parts.
Accidents involving employees and equipment in the workplace have a negative impact on the company’s productivity and operating costs. Material processing and handling operations, including cutting, are areas where accidents occur frequently. Using laser cutting for these applications can reduce the risk of accidents. Because it is a non-contact process, this means that the machine tool should not physically come into contact with the material. In addition, the beam generation does not require any operator intervention during the laser cutting process, ensuring that the high-power beam is safely maintained inside the sealed machine. Usually, except for inspection and repair operations, laser cutting does not require manual intervention. Compared to traditional cutting methods, this process minimizes direct contact with the surface of the workpiece, thereby reducing the possibility of employee accidents and injuries.
In addition to being able to cut complex geometric shapes with higher accuracy, Precision Laser Cutting Equipment can also enable manufacturers to perform cutting without mechanical modifications, using a wider range of materials and thicknesses. Using the same beam of light with different output levels, intensities, and durations, laser cutting can cut various metals. Making similar adjustments to the machine can accurately cut materials of various thicknesses. The integrated CNC components can achieve automation, providing more intuitive operations.
Precision cutting is widely used in the machining of various high-precision spare parts, such as most components of cell phones, where the process requirements are in the micrometre range. Once defects occur, assembly errors or leakage can easily occur. At this point, Precision Laser Processing Equipment technology is required to ensure the accuracy of the product. At present, there are many precision cutting techniques used in industrial processing, mainly laser cutting, plasma cutting, waterjet cutting, wire cutting and so on.
The principle of Precision Laser Cutting Machine is to use a high-power density laser beam to irradiate materials, which instantly vaporizes and melts the material, thereby cutting the material and achieving processing objectives. Thanks to the stability of laser and intelligent control system, laser precision cutting can control errors within the range of+-0.1. At the same time, while maintaining accuracy, laser cutting also needs to maximize efficiency, making it one of the mainstream processing methods at present.
Scope of application of laser cutting: Laser cutting can process the vast majority of metal and non-metallic materials, such as steel, copper, aluminum, carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum alloys, etc; Non metallic materials such as fabric, acrylic, wood, ceramics, glass, etc. can all be processed using lasers.
Laser precision cutting has very high efficiency in processing thin plate materials, but when processing thick plate materials, the efficiency begins to decrease. Laser cutting has certain limitations on the size of processed materials, and the efficiency will significantly decrease for metal materials exceeding 40mm, as well as for wood with excessive thickness.
Any thermal cutting technique, except in a few cases where it may start from the edge of the plate, generally requires a small hole in the plate. In the past, Precision Laser Cutting Equipment first punched a hole, and then the laser was used to cut from the small hole. There are two basic methods for piercing laser cutting machines without punching devices:
Blasting perforation – The material is irradiated with a continuous laser to form a pit in the center, and then the molten material is quickly removed by a stream of oxygen coaxial with the laser beam to form a hole. The size of the holes in small laser cutting equipment generally depends on the sheet thickness, and the average diameter of the beam perforation is half of the sheet thickness. Therefore, the opening of the beam perforation is larger and non-circular for thicker sheets, and should not be used for parts with high requirements for machining accuracy. It can be used only for waste materials. In addition, since perforating uses the same oxygen pressure as cutting, significant spattering occurs.
Pulse perforation – A small amount of material is melted or vaporized using a peak power pulse laser. Air or nitrogen is typically used as an assist gas to reduce hole expansion due to exothermic oxidation, and the gas pressure is lower than the oxygen pressure used in cutting. Each laser pulse produces only small particle beams that penetrate gradually, so the perforation time for thick sheets is only a few seconds. Once perforation is complete, the auxiliary gas for cutting is immediately replaced by oxygen. In this way, the perforation diameter is smaller and the perforation quality is better than beam perforation. The laser used for this purpose should not only have high output power; especially the temporal and spatial characteristics of the beam make it difficult for general CO2 cross- flow lasers to meet the requirements of laser cutting. In addition, pulse perforating also requires a reliable gas path control system to achieve the gas type, gas pressure switching and perforation timing.
In order to achieve high-quality cuts on small precision laser cutting machines with pulse grooving, the transition technology from pulse grooving with the workpiece stationary to continuous cutting of the workpiece at a constant speed should be taken seriously. In theory, it is usually possible to change the cutting conditions of the acceleration section, such as focal length, nozzle position, gas pressure, etc., but in reality, it is unlikely to change these conditions due to the short time. In industrial production, it is more practical to mainly use the method of changing the average laser power. The specific method for small laser cutting machines is to change the pulse width, change the pulse frequency, and change the pulse width and frequency at the same time.
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